Documentation of Chini language and culture
|Location:||Papua New Guinea|
|Deposit Id:||0346, 0443|
|ELDP Id:||SG0243, IGS0294|
This deposit portrays life and language in Chini country on the lower Sogeram River in inland Madang Province, PNG. It spans a range of settings and discourse types: community activities, conversation, singsings/ritual dances, trips through Chini territory, folktales, oral history, autobiography, and procedural texts, among others. It is geared toward naturalistic interactive contexts, because those are the ones that are representative of daily life, culture, and language use. Most materials are in Chini, some in Tok Pisin, some in other Papuan languages. Materials collected in 2012 and 2014 are mostly audio; materials deposited as of 2016 are mostly audiovisual.Group represented
The Chini of Andamang and Akrukay villages (in local terms, the Awakŋi and Yavɨnaŋri, respectively). Similar to most other autonyms in Chini's immediate region, 'chini' translates as 'there isn't any'. 'Chini' refers to the same people and language as the misnomer 'Akrukay'. (Some materials in this collection are labeled under either name but there is no difference; all materials in the process of being changed over to Chini which is the correct, locally-recognized name).
Individuals from the following people groups in PNG are also represented in the corpus (to a much lesser extent): Breri (various villages), Rao (various villages), Nend (various villages), Magɨyi (Vguvɨndɨ village), Manat (Paynamar), Manŋga (Tokegnam), Kaje (Humdor), and Hua (Rosove).Language information
Chini has two dialects, each associated with one of the two villages. There are about 20 speakers of the Andamang dialect and about twice that for Akrukay. Some speakers mix dialects.
All speakers were in their late thirties or older at the time of the research and the language is undergoing shift to Tok Pisin, now the dominant language in Andamang and Akrukay. With few exceptions, younger members of society have passive knowledge but are able to produce some utterances whereas for adults who speak Chini, the language has the full force of a first language.
Chini is a member of the Ramu family, a group of languages spoken along the Ramu River and adjacent areas. Virtually all are endangered, undocumented, and minimally if at all described.Special characteristics
This deposit contains materials that shed light on the dialectal differences between Andamang and Akrukay, which occur in all areas of structure and in the lexicon.
The diverse interactive contexts documented here are valuable for understanding language use and code-switching at a time when the (endangered) vernacular has been undergoing shift. The documentation shows how in most contexts very little code-switching into Chini occurs whereas in others Chini is still dominant.
Several recordings in this collection attest to cultural practices about which very little is known and/or which have declined or become obsolete in many/most areas of Melanesia, for example food restrictions, the culture of the men's house, female adoption practices between the Chini and other nearby matrilineal groups, among others. This collection also sheds light on the history of ritual dance (Tok Pisin 'singsing') exchange in the Sogeram/Middle Ramu region.Deposit contents
This deposit currently houses about 13 hours of audiovisual and about 9.5 hours of audio recordings of primary data, that is, interactive events depicting the cultural and linguistic life of the Chini people. Some of these recordings are primarily in Tok Pisin. Of the total primary data, about 16 hours are in Chini. Of these 16 hours, 10.5 have been transcribed.
There are additionally many other types of recordings and materials that enrich the collection: recordings of transcription sessions, text-based elicitation sessions, word lists intended to elucidate complex phonetic structures, permissions, community requests for linguists from 5 other language groups, and copies of notebooks. Some of these are still being processed and uploaded to the collection.
Where recordings of the primary data are concerned, the following gives an overall impression according to discourse type and quantity recorded.
Community events and activities [4h50m audiovisual, 1.5h audio] :
Catholic mass and reconciliation feast [audiovisual, mostly Tok Pisin]
Morning and afternoon community meetings about allochthonous settlements in Andamang [audio, mostly Tok Pisin]
Andamang boys' soccer practice [audiovisual, mostly Tok Pisin]
Group fishing [audiovisual, mostly Chini]
Conversation (diverse settings): 5h20m [audiovisual] & 4h20m [audio]
Trips through Chini country (bush walks, garden walks, canoe rides): 2h20m [audiovisual]
Ritual dances ('singsings'): 50m Andamang community singsings [audiovisual] & 1.5 hours of Andamang and Paynamar community singsings [audio]
Oral history and genealogy: 40m [audio]
Autobiographical and recent events: 40m [audio]
Procedures and explanations: 20m [audiovisual] & 5m [audio]
Garden laws and food restrictions: 6m [audio]
Pear story narrations: 6m [audiovisual]Deposit history
This collection includes deposits from an ELDP small grant awarded to the depositor in 2014 and an ELDP IGS grant awarded for 2016-2018. The IGS project is part of the depositor's PhD research based at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Most materials for the first deposit were recorded during 2014, with a few recordings dating from a short research trip in 2012. Materials for the second deposit are in the process of being submitted, with materials from a 2016 fieldtrip having been deposited at this time.Other information
This collection is a work in progress at this time. Annotation files in particular are constantly being updated and will become available for registered users once they are in a presentable and multi-tiered, time-aligned format in ELAN (or PRAAT). Many annotations for recordings in 2014 are in analog format and in the process of being digitized. Much of the digitization is thanks to the work of Shannon Li during her time as an undergraduate student and research assistant at the depositor's home university, UCSB. In-situ transcription was done by the depositor primarily with the monumental help of Anton (Mbarɨŋɨnɨ) Mana. I am extraordinarily thankful to these and so many others who have helped shape and enrich the documentation.
Filenames are fairly simple and straightforward, e.g. 'afi011116iv' indicates a recording within this collection according to the ISO code for Chini [afi], an interactive event with four main interactants, and one recorded on 1 November 2016. File names for some materials may deviate slightly from this structure; for instance the letter 'm' designates not 'one thousand' interactants but simply 'many'.Acknowledgment and citation of data
Anyone wishing to use or cite the contents of this collection for research purposes or otherwise is requested to ask the principle investigator, Joseph Brooks, prior to doing so, especially since this collection is a work in progress at this point in time. I am best reached at josephdbrooks AT umail.ucsb.edu and welcome inquiries pertaining to the collection.
Any use of this collection should acknowledge Joseph Brooks as the principle investigator and researcher and should acknowledge ELDP (the Endangered Languages Documentation Programme) as the funder of the project.
The corpus should be cited in reference sections as:
Brooks, Joseph. 2018. Documentation of Chini language and culture (Madang Province, Papua New Guinea). London: SOAS, Endangered Languages Archive. URL: https://elar.soas.ac.uk/Collection/MPI636676. Accessed on [insert date here].
The use of linguistic examples or any other specific content from recordings in this collection that appear in published materials or presentations should be individually cited so that they are properly resolvable to their location in this collection. Recorded connected speech data cited from this corpus should also cite the full name or initials of the original person(s) who produced the utterance. This can all be done easily by citing the basic filename associated with the deposited recording and a time stamp that indicates where it can be found. So, the utterance gwrwaŋɨ, dmu ŋgarugruru! 'Kuon! Nogut sanguma kilim em!' 'Go (follow him), (otherwise) a sorcerer could kill him!' would ideally not appear in isolation in a publication or presentation but would instead be cited as something like: 'Emma Airɨmarɨ: afi011116iv_21:37'.
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