Arapaho text corpus


Arapaho text corpus

Language: Arapaho (ISO639-3:arp)
Depositor: Lisa Conathan
Location: United States
Deposit Id: 0083
Grant id: IPF0066
Funding body: ELDP
Level: Deposit


Summary of deposit

The project aimed to incorporate diverse linguistic varieties into the Arapaho 'canon' of audio and written texts, and especially increase the documentation of women's speech and to contribute to a comprehensive grammatical description of Arapaho. It also contributed to the historical and comparative study of the Algic languages, including inferences about the early history of Algic peoples.

The deposit includes a dictionary and text concordance containing grammatical information, text references, examples from texts and usage information. The analytical and cultural dictionary includes, in addition to English-Arapaho and Arapaho-English glosses, morphological analysis, etymology (including Proto-Algonquian and Proto-Algic roots), and references to a text corpus.



Group represented
Arapaho

Language information

Arapaho is one of a group of Algonquian languages spoken on the Great Plains, on the eastern seaboard, northeast and upper midwest of the US, and in eastern Canada in an area separate from the main speech area. The Arapaho language has changed rapidly over the centuries, and does not closely resemble other Algonquian languages in many ways.

The variety documented here is Northern Arapaho, as spoken on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, USA.

The Algonquian languages and peoples have played an important part in American history. All the tribes initially encountered by English settlers were Algonquian, and these farming peoples shared their crops such as corn, squash, beans and pumpkins with the new arrivals. The first book printed in the US was a translation of the Bible, printed in the Massachusett language, in the early 1600's. The majority of words borrowed into English from Native American languages are Algonquian in origin, including moccasin, moose, wigwam, wampum, toboggan, and place names including Massachusetts and Connecticut. Today, many of the Algonquian language are either extinct or threatened with extinction. No children are currently learning Arapaho as a first language spoken in the home. Virtually all of the fluent, native speakers of Arapaho (who learned Arapaho as their first language) are now over the age of 50. Certainly less than 500 people still speak Arapaho, concentrated overwhelmingly among the Northern Arapaho in Wyoming.



Other information

In developing an Arapaho-English and English-Arapaho dictionary, I intend to make use of as many sources as possible, including manuscripts, previously published dictionaries and contemporary speakers. A dictionary entry references a source if the head word is found only on once source. Those words found in multiple sources do not have references.

All scientific names for plants are from Cowell mss.

The two most significant sources are:

  • Cowell, Andrew and Alonzo Moss, Sr. 2005. Hinnóno'éínoo3ítoono / Arapaho Historical Traditions Told by Paul Moss. Publications of the Algonquian Text Society. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.
  • Salzmann, Zdeněk (compiler). 1983. Dictionary of Contemporary Arapaho Usage. Arapaho Language and Culture Instructional Materials Series, No. 4. General editor: William J. C'Hair. Wind River Reservation, Wyoming.

Other sources include:

  • Cowell, Andrew. mss. material on Arapaho language and culture.
  • Dorsey, George A. and A.L. Kroeber. 1997 (originally published 1903). Traditions of the Arapaho. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Kroeber, A.L. bulk dates 1900-01. Manuscripts 2560, 2622, Smithsonian Institution National Anthropological Archives.
  • Kroeber, A.L. 1983 (originally published 1902-07). The Arapaho. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Salzmann, Zdeněk. 1963. A Sketch of Arapaho Grammar.


Acknowledgement and citation

Many fellow linguists and Arapaho speakers have contributed to my work documenting and revitalizing the Arapaho language.

I would like to thank Belle Matheson, a fellow student at Berkeley who first introduced me to the Arapaho language and people in 2003. Some of the recordings on the audio dictionary were made with her. J. Andrew Cowell, scholar of Arapaho literature and language, has provided invaluable help and guidance at every step.

Thanks to members of the Berkeley Yurok Project (especially Andrew Garrett), who have provided technical and general guidance.

Most importantly, thank you to all the speakers who have worked with me. They have graciously and patiently begun to teach me their language, and I hope these efforts will be useful to them and to their children and grandchildren.



Status

Collection online
Resources online and curated

Depositor

Lisa Conathan
Responsive image
Affiliation: Linguistics Department, University of California at BerkeleyBeinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University

Deposit Statistics

Data from 2019 November 20 to 2019 November 20
Deposit hits:17
Downloaded files
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Showing 1 - 10 of 130 Items


Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

Edward describes a trip on which he consulted with forestry employees about forest fires. Since the term Beiiniicii can refer to several different places, it is not clear where exactly this trip took place. The transcription is based on a recording of Edward Willow made by Lisa Conathan on 04 October 2004. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is fair.

Recorded on: 2004-10-04




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

An old man foresaw an attack by the cavalry The transcription is based on a recording of Mary Kate Underwood made by Lisa Conathan on 19 October 2004 in the home of Mary Kate and Ed Underwood. Ed Underwood was present at the time of recording. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good.

Recorded on: 2004-10-19




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

Mary Kate describes the way she remembers an old woman wearing a braided forelock. She says that the word she uses, hiicei3oo, is no longer in common usage and that this practice is old fashioned. Lisa Conathan could not find any other people who know this word. The transcription is based on a recording of Mary Kate Underwood made by Lisa Conathan on 05 October 2004, in the presence of Edward Underwood. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good.

Recorded on: 2004-10-05




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

Mary Kate compares how people would handle money in the old days and how they do today. The transcription is based on a recording of Mary Kate Underwood made by Lisa Conathan on 05 October 2005 in her home on the Wind River Reservation. Her husband Edward Underwood was also present at the time of recording. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good.

Recorded on: 2004-10-05




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

A description of trips to language revitalization workshops in Oklahoma and Las Vegas. The transcription is tentative. The transcription is based on a recording of Zona Moss made by Lisa Conathan on 21 September 2004. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good.

Recorded on: 2004-09-21




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

Mark Soldier Wolf discussed Arapaho names, in English and in Arapaho. He tells about people he remembers having these names, and sometimes the stories behind why they were given their names. The transcription is based on a recording of Mark Soldier Wolf made by Lisa Conathan on 26 October 2004. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good. In this recording Mark Soldier Wolf speaks both English and Arapaho; only the Arapaho portions are transcribed.

Recorded on: 2004-10-26




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

The transcription is based on a recording of Charles Gambler made by Lisa Conathan on 08 Nov 2004 in his home on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is fair.

Recorded on: 2004-11-08




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

JoAnn and Frances sing an Arapaho language version of the song "Frere Jacques/Are you sleeping?" The transcription is based on a recording of JoAnn Birdshead and Frances Dewey made by Lisa Conathan on 20 April 2005. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good.

Recorded on: 2005-04-20




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

Mark Soldier Wolf describes life on the Wind River Reservation in the early part of the 20th century, including rationing, the poor standard of living and later on the war years. The transcription is based on a recording of Mark Soldier Wolf made by Lisa Conathan on 04 November 2004 at his home on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good.

Recorded on: 2004-11-04




Deposit title: Arapaho text corpus

Lloyd Dewey tells about his career in the military and running cattle. The transcription is based on a recording of Lloyd Dewey made by Lisa Conathan on 08 November 2004 in his home on the Wind River Reservation. The recording was made on a Sony Recording MD Walkman MZ-R700 with a Sony ECM-MS957 microphone. Recording quality is good to fair, with the sound of a heater in the background.

Recorded on: 2004-11-08